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This manuscript was a private reference document written by an identified samurai of the late Edo period (1854). Written on a rough class of paper, these notes are taken from a work of military strategy, the Heiho Yukan. The Heiho Yukan, or “Paragon of Military Strategy”, was written by Hojo Ujinaga of the Koshu School of Military Theory circa 1645. This treatise was presented to the third Tokugawa Shogun, Tokugawa Iemitsu.
In the main, Classical Japanese does not use punctuation as found in English. Unless specially formatted, text appears in blocks without periods or commas, and generally without the separation of paragraphs. To duplicate this effect in the English translation, the text appears without the use of paragraphs. Instead a combination of white space and the “ – ” symbol are used to indicate a separation between ideas.
You can move through the pages by selecting a page number from the column at the left, or by using the page-turn arrows found at the top-and-bottom corners of the white background of each page.
The text in all page images are numbered. The placement of numbers again follows the old Japanese tradition of reading from right-to-left (i.e. 3, 2, 1 and from top to bottom). The text pages of this document differentiate titles from text body, and section from section, by how far the text in indented from the top of the page. Each title or body of text is given a separate number for translation / commenting.
On each page, below the picture, will be text areas listing the numbered text on the image. Clicking on the line for a particular section of text will open a comment box in the column to the right where comments, analysis, links etc. can be posted. Alternatively you can look in the right hand column for the “COMMENTS ON ITEM #” line and click on the appropriate number to open the same box..
When the analysis for a section of text is confirmed, the final description from the comments will be posted on the appropriate text item number below the page image.